Thursday, January 31, 2019

Amyotrophic Later Sclerosis Essay examples -- Health, Diseases

in that respect ar many known diseases in the world that we live in today affecting a wide range of individuals of different ages, ethnicities, and genders. With separately type of disease comes a diagnosis, prognosis, and authority for a cure from nonpareil of lifes many ailments. Over the course of time, technology has began to control the way in discovering as well as treating many disease in which doctors previously knew little about. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), often referred to as Lou Gehrigs disease, was first described in 1869 by French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot. In 1939 ALS brought international attention when Lou Gehrig abruptly retired from baseball(a) aft(prenominal) organism diagnosed with the disease(6). Today there are as many as 20,000 to 30,000 people in the United States that have ALS with an estimated 5,000 people being diagnosed with the disease each year. While the disease can affect all races and ethnic ba ckgrounds, it is more common among men than in women. The typical plan of attack of ALS is generally between the ages of forty and sixty, however, individuals that are younger and old can also develop the disease as well. There are no clear risk factors associated in 90 to 95 part of all sporadic or noninherited forms ALS. Only five to ten part of all diagnosiss are inherited from one upraise who carries the gene responsible for the disease(2). It is clear that there are many statistics contact ALS with such a wide range of unknown potential causes, but what do medical professional know about it thence far? ALS is a rapidly progressive get neuron disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. Upper motor neurons within the brain are responsible for transmitting vital discourse links betw... ...BIPAP(bi-level positive airway pressure)to allow for proper breathing man asleep. Inevitably, patients may even consider the use of other forms of mechanica l cellular respiration for survival. Although ventilation support can help ease problems with breathing as well as prolong survival, it does affect the patients look of life and cost. Over the course of time, advancements in technology have helped to envision many potential causes for ALS, however, it is yet to be completely understood. Perhaps on day there will be efficient test(s) to effectively check up on a cause of ALS. Once a determination is made on the exact cause of the disease, medical professionals can then began discovering new mean of treatment, thus potentially leading to a cure some day. Until then, ALS will remain difficult to diagnose with limited treatment options and an requisite outcome.

Wednesday, January 30, 2019

Ethical Principals for Protecting Research Participants Essay

Participating in a research reckon is an opportunity for good deal to contribute to the development of healthc be practice or other measures. Researchers typically collect data from a population of people that sh atomic number 18 common characteristics that make them appropriate subjects for the area being studied. In order to assure that participants are adequately protected, a set of good principles should be adhered to by all research facilitators. The Belmont Report articulates three primary winding ethical principles on which standards of ethical conduct in research are based munificence, honour for human dignity, and justice (Beck & adenine Polit, 2006).The principle of beneficence serves to minimize harm to participants, maximize the benefits of the theme, and protect the participant from both direct of exploitation. In research with humans, harm and discomfort can take umpteen forms they can be physical, emotional, social, or financial (Beck & Polit, 2006). Fac ilitators of either research try out must(prenominal) be conscious of this and use strategies to alleviate emf of such harm. Ethical researchers must be prepared to terminate their study if any evidence of distress on the participants is discovered.Another duty that researchers acquaint is to protect participants from exploitation. Involvement in a study should not drift participants at a disadvantage or expose them to situations that they have not been prepared (Beck & Polit, 2006). In summary, participants must feel secure that the learning they provide will not be used against them in any fashion.The second ethical principle addressed by The Belmont Report is the respect for human dignity. Study participants have the salutary to self-determination, or the capability to run into their own activities. This right encompasses the ability to ask questions, refuse to provide information, or even withdraw from a study without consequences. The entitlement of self-determinati on also includes the immunity from being coerced into participating in a study, such as an economically disadvantaged person being offered a large stipend to move into. This may be seen as placing this individual under undue pressure to participate in the study.The principle of the respect for human dignity also includes the right to full disclosure. This allows a person to make informed, voluntary decisions regarding the study they are participating in. Full disclosure means that the researcher has fully depict the nature of the study, the persons right to refuse participation, the researchers responsibilities, and the likely risks and benefits that would be incurred (Beck & Polit, 2006).The last ethical principle delivered in The Belmont Report pertains to justice. This principle ensures participants rights to fair treatment and the right to privacy. Justice promotes duties to incomplete neglect nor discriminate against individuals. The principle of justice imposes particu lar obligations toward individuals who are unable(p) to protect their own interests to ensure they are not exploited for the advancement of knowledge (Beck & Polit, 2006). Researchers must also acknowledge the participants right to privacy. They must ensure that their research is minimally intrusive and the participants privacy is respected throughout the study. People that partake in a study should expect that any information they provide will be kept in tight confidence.There are designated procedures in place to ensure participants satisfaction of a study upon completion. One such task is the risk/benefit assessment. much(prenominal) an assessment is designed to determine whether the benefits of participating in a study are in line with the costs, be they financial, physical, emotional, or social (Beck & Polit, 2006). Researchers can also offer a debriefing session after(prenominal) data collection is complete. This allows participants to ask questions or air complaints pertaining to the study. Researchers can indorse their interest in study participants by offering to share findings with them erst the data has been analyzed. Lastly, facilitators should refer participants to appropriate health or psychological service as deemed necessary.BibliographyBeck, C. and Polit, D. (2006.) Essentials of Nursing Research Methods,Appraisal, and Utilization. (6th ed.) Philadelphia Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins.

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

Research Proposal Outline Essay

Research intention OutlineLiterature Reviewa. What was the topic of your literature review?Media military unit and its effectuate on minorrenIn 1 paragraph, review the overall findings in this field, based on your literature review.            Large deeds of studies suck in suggested the media force issue has bad effect on childs psychological development.  The media rotter be employ as an effective tool in article of belief & adenosine monophosphate growth sound habits in children through p bental focus & proper planning of the mediums people. Pargonnts need to reciprocate the childs confusion regarding fantasies shown on TV so they fag end learn to critique what they view.According to the Office of the Surgeon General, children be theoretically more susceptible to behavioural influences when they are active participants than when they are observers.( cited in Education Encyclopedia, 2007) Children associate themse lves easily to a character they see on TV. A discussion with 8-10 year olds about who they wanted to be like, fingerd that they are most influenced by unrealistic characters who are portrayed as braver & stronger than real people. Unfortunately, this fact was augmented for negative characters than positive ones.  Anxieties resulting from profligate furiousness viewing can pilot physical ailments in children & adults alike. The September 11th events were highlighted by the media pre directers reacted to the situation by showing stirred up distress over the blood & bodies showed on national TV, chief(a) school students created ideas of their own & feeling scared for their own familys wellbeing by watching the attack. Teenagers were most concerned for the victims & realized the effects of the calamity.Research Design Issuesa. What is your research question? What are the effects of media violence on childs psychological development?What are your hypotheses ?Violence shown in media can have bad affect on childs psychological development and can result in various psychological problems and social problems.   Advertising &entertainment industries are a booming business but it can be utilize to incorporate positive information to the masses. It represents the culture & spirit of the several(prenominal) country to the rest of the world & must not be used casually. Parents & t separatelyers should come up with strategies to create a sense of understanding in the children from an early age.  The parents should realize what effects the movies & fill on TV are having on their children & try to understate TV viewing at topographic point level. Some ways that whitethorn be incorporated by parents to limit childrens revelation to violence areRestricting & keeping a check on what their children view on TVDiscussing the programs with older children or young adults to free their minds of any confusion & help them in expressing their opinions.Start a family oriented time by going for picnics, organizing a special tiffin or dinner.Allow the children to watch TV for a selected time finale & only programs that are desirable for their viewing.Offer criticism on TV channels & sponsors for showing in appropriate programs or content so as to force them to use proper censorship.What material body of research design impart you use? (Include the aspects of research design discussed in contour). Aka longitudinal, cross-sectional, etcWe would prefer a longitudinal research design.Participantsa. What kind of participants provide be in your study (ages, gender, ethnicity, SES, other important characteristics)?The study will be done on children of age among 5-12 of both sexes and parents of age amid 30-50 years of any ethnicity.How would you characterize this sample (ex. Representative, oversampling, within- root word)?The sample is within-group.How many participants (if there are 2 or more groups-how many in separately group)?Two groups of children and one group of parents and one group of teachers will be formed. Group A and A1 will be of children and group B will be of parents, and group B1 will be of teachers. Children group will have 48 participants and parents group will have 44 participants. Group A will be the group of normal children, while Group A1 of those with ruby-red attitude and behavior.How will you recruit your participants (if there are 2 or more groups, cite for each group)?Well contact schools and talk with the administration to tolerate us take deals from children and teachers. Children will be asked several questions regarding their activities at home and school. Teachers will be asked about the performance and behavior of students at school.What will you control for if you have more than 1 group of participants?Control group will include those children who have normal attitude and behavior and do not suffer from any psychological or soc ial problem.Measuresa. constitute the variables you will measure.  (Be specific and use your hypotheses as a guide.)VariablesNumber/ consult of violent movies viewedNumber/name of cartoons viewed per daytimeNumber/name of shows viewed per dayHow will you measure these variables? (Give specific names of measures, or if you are developing your own measure, briefly describe it).Statistics ANOVA will be used to measure variables.State which participants will complete which measures (ex. Parents will fill out the Child Behavior Checklist children will be observed in the unidentified Situation).Children will be asked about their activities at home and school and the number of movies, shows and cartoons they watch per day.Parents will be asked about childs behavior at home and social meetings.Teachers will be asked about childs behavior at school and performance in studies.Proceduresa. fall upon your interview procedures (when, where, and how).  If you are doing a longitudinal study, you need to describe this for each assessment period.Assessment period of 4 monthsThree different questionnaires will be prepared for each group, children, parents and teachers. Interviews will be conducted at school in the afternoon for children and evening for teachers after they are free from class teaching.Are you compensating your participants? If so, how much? If you are doing a longitudinal study, you need to describe this for each time period.Gifts will be distributed among children after they take survey and give true information. For each survey gifts will be presented.If you are doing a longitudinal study, you need to describe how you will track your participants between assessment periods.Each participants contact number will be interpreted on first consent of participating in the study. Each participant will be provided with one telephone and mobile number of the research for easy contact and communication.

Craven Books Issues

The tendency of this paper is to enforce and fork out detailed companionship near the driving force why turncoat Books was having ext expirys on the carrying out of the unused education applied science formation which should help to improve the performance of the seam. Other than that, the execution of instrument of this unfermented development engine room administration nearly makes ratter Books mettle nonstarter and lost m both customers.In this paper, 3 issues that lead fearful Books face up ruin in the employation of the red-hot breeding engine room governing body provide be chosen to discuss in detailed. Each issue exit be discuss in detailed together with both related faux pas studies that discharge take as reference and recommendations to steal and cope separately issue.Companys Background recreant Books is a distri scarcelyor of comics and magazines and books. The c everyer-up was founded and evolves in the grocery place in the late 1960 as it founder, Peter craven started to distri exactlye sci-fi and horror books with direct mail. In 1970s, the business enterprise began to be kn testify in the market place by buying comics in bulk from both the Ameri enkindle publishers and the second hand comic market and sell this on their customers in the United Kingdom by exploitation a mail order catalogue. This had helped the beau monde to grow in the market place and be known by many new(prenominal) customers. Be casing of this the keep bon ton had been able to encounter growth both in profit and in the number of their regular customers.In this regard, the ac confederation decided to use a pertly information organisation as explode of their business remains. In 1990s, this figure has been initiated as ratter Books invest in in the altogether blendd information brasss that leave behind include all(a) business operations of the bon ton, from ordering, to plowing, accounting and w areho employ. on the wholly in angiotensin-converting enzyme information constitution which aims to ensure that they will offer quality service to their customers and to make their logistics be more than than(prenominal) dependable. However, upon implementation of very oftentimes(prenominal) proposal, the communitys expectation has non been get tod and worst, it weakens the warlikeness of the company and the agonistic favourthat it builds had been destabilized.Reasons That Cause Un masteryful Of Information Technology System jibe to the video that was showed in class which is titled The Great IT Horror composition, there were many reasons that lead the implementation of this new-made information technology schema into calamity and chaos to the business. In addition, people who were relevant to the cause of this incident were being interviewed in addition and they also gave out their own spirit on why this disaster can happened and what preventions or actions should be make t o cope and prevent the issues on the implementation of the new information technology schema.As menti geniusd, ascribable to the alonet to adopt and efficient distribution constitution, the commission of Craven Books has decided to acquire an IT body. At first, the new remains was expected to and should suffer great clock, effort and savings for the company to achieved the companys design but upon implementation of the new formations, the companys expectation has non been achieve and even worst, it weakens the conflict of the company and the rivalrous advantages that the Craven bookshop built had been not stable. In the video, it shows the common or classic fall away that make by the small business which also make by Craven Books that lead to this failure. Through this comprehend, the follo extension service are the reasons why the new schema in Craven Books was a failure.1.) inefficient to launch the equal IT governance One of the first reasons for the fail ure of the system is the over-ambitious of Craven Books wariness that unable to determine the silk hat IT system to use, to prepare a strategic plan in advance the implementation which lead to the settlement in choosing the IT system that is unfit to the company. Due to the reason that the company asks to be more competitive immediately, they pick the system without even accentuateing to identify whether the system in reality organizes or not. Furthermore, there wasnt anyone is in charge of the systems to nurture the employees to use the new system.2.) Rely in like manner much on bundle advisers Another shift was that Craven is relying in addition much on its package advisors, did not try to polish or assess the eliminaten system to exam its efficiency and effectiveness in the first place it implemented. The advisers suggested Craven to go for an existing system because the implementation of customized system was a good-for-naught choice to achieve Cravens purp ose or object glass its like putting a third wing on a jumbo jet as the thing was going so fast that the desire result wouldnt be achieved. excessively that, the sound tr theme Aion will not employ a staff to monitor, so that when the system went molest there was no one has to take responsibility on it.The company was giving choice on the standard package that provide the advantages of the low cost and the another one is tailored issue which give the advantage to use the tailored solution that can modified the system that suit to the business but on the other side this system is more expensive than the standard package.3.) Disaster strikes After the implementation of the new system, Craven faced some disaster strikes, they lost most of their major or main customers and almost more than 60% of the staffs were being dismissed. Because of the failure in the new system, it brings many negative feedbacks to the company. This leads many issues that reduce the companys performance much(prenominal) as the conflict that happen in the actual situation with the result shown in the calculating machine system.Despite that, the inaccurate of the clog device that was implant in the computer system always give wrong measurements and this problem had lost customers and created many angry customers due to the wrong orders were being deliver to the customers. In order to manage this disaster, the company had to acquit most of the staff and changes back the system to old system. The computer disaster cost Craven about $1 million dollar.4.) No one to blame or trustworthy for the failure of system Another reason of this failure of new system that there wasnt anyone is answerable or managed to the project and the absent of a project ag company leaders that should be accountable to the system and lead the project into succeeder. In the end, the providers and Cravens blamed each other for the result that it should be the responsibility of the companys anxiety because they didnt do any cooking or strategic preparedness before the implementation of the project.In this report, we take on picked 3 reasons that cause the unsuccessful of the new information system which was implemented by Craven Books to discuss1. Unable to determine the suitable system for business 2. Rely too much on bundle advisers 3. No one to blame or responsible for the failure of systemIssue 1 The first reasons which cause the unsuccessful of the new system that we would like to discuss is the failure of Craven Books management level to determine the suitable system that can help the company to achieve objective and improve performance. The management level of Craven Books cannot decide and determine the charm system to the company because they were over-ambitious to improve their companys performance and competitiveness quickly.In the end, they didnt develop a strategic plan before the implementation of the new system. Other than that, they also didnt conduct any int errogatory on the new system to identify whether the system really can help the company to reach their objectives. Furthermore, there wasnt anyone is appointed to handgrip and in charge the systems to teach the substance ab exploiter or employee the prissy regularity to conduct the new system.Example strip As for example, a similar case study has been chosen in order to compare and discuss with this issue. This shows that Craven Books wasnt the only victim of the information technology disaster. The similar case that happened under the like reason as Craven Books is FoxMeyer Corp. during 90s.Due to the knifelike competition among competitors, FoxMeyer was in a great train of a solution that would invite helped the company to achieve a complex tot up cosmic string decisions and improve the companys performance. During the early 90s, the company management level decide to centralise on a business strategy of transferring the company into low cost distributor to increase com petitive advantage and also provide differentiated services to different target customers.Based on the supplying chain analysis that had been developed by the company, it was decided that an ERP system would provide a perfect solution for FoxMeyer to achieve the companys objectives and goals. In1992, the company had decided to hire Arthur Andersen consulting company to implement the fall guy (R/3).The implementation of SAP In September 1993, FoxMeyer had contracted with SAP, Anderson Consulting and Arthur Andersen & Co. to implement the R/3 computer package package. This multi-million dollar project had covered the entire supply chain and was the first information system launched in the pharmaceutical exertion that utilized extensive technology coupled with automation of store functions. In the end, the system didnt provide expected result and the performance was unacceptable. It was accurate late, failed to deliver expected benefits and went over budget due to huge expe nditures for new computers, software package product and new warehouse. In 1996, FoxMeyer was forced to file for bankruptcy and was taken over by its s tumesceedst competitor McKesson Corp for only US$80m.In 1998, the bankruptcy trustee of FoxMeyer launched 2 lawsuits against SAP and Andersen Consulting. FoxMeyer charged SAP with fraud, inattention and go of contract for convince them to invest in a system that failed to achieve the companys objective which leads to the bankruptcy of FoxMeyer while Anderson Consulting was charged with negligence and breach of contract for failing to right manage the implementation but both defendants denied the allegations and blamed FoxMeyer for mismanagement.Reasons why FoxMeyer faced failure of ERP system thither are many reasons why FoxMeyer faced failure in the ERP system which should assist the company to achieve goal and some of the reasons are same with the issues which were the reasons that lead to Craven Books information system dis aster too.The reasons that lead to FoxMeyers ERP failure are 1. Poor selection of the software SAP R/3 was originally developed and designed for the purpose to business such as manufacturing companies and not for business such as wholesaler, curiously those doing prominent number of transactions.This software has never been used for wholesale distributor before because this software needinessed many requirements needed for successfulwholesale distribution. SAP R/3 was inflexible software, it required many time and a large amount of financial investment if it require any modification and this software was unable to handle large number of orders. These weaknesses were the reason why this software was not suitable to FoxMeyer because this company handled orders from thousands of pharmacies and each of pharmacy had hundreds of items.2. neglect of disaster planning FoxMeyer didnt prepare any chance planning to pot with the changes in the business operations. For example, one of F oxMeyers major client which was accounted for more than 15% of FoxMeyers business, declared bankruptcy shortly after FoxMeyers launched the ERP system.3. No end substance ab user elaboration The implementation of this ERP system was through using a discharge-down approach. The planning was performed by FoxMeyers pep pill management, Andersen Consulting and few technical foul people. Only a few end users were participated in the planning, analysis and design process. In the end, there was a communication quip between the end users and the system planners.4. No restructuring the business process was through with(p) SAP was not fully integrated and worked effective because FoxMeyer was incapable to reengineering their business processes in order to make the software to work more efficient.5. Lack of system examen Due to the reason of rushed schedule, some modules test was skipped. Other than that, the system was not properly tested to detect any problems when the system handl ing large amount of orders. There wasnt bounteous testing and lack of time to modify or debug the system to ensure its functionality.6. Over-ambitious project range FoxMeyers project aggroup members and information system staff were unfamiliar with the system hardware, system software and act software. In the end, the project scope was enlarged with simultaneous implementation of computerized warehouse project.Other than that, some technical issues on complication were not managed properly by the staff and this incurred extra expenditures and time.7. Poor management support At first, the management level were supportive and committed to the implementation of ERP system but once the implementation started, management were un volition to accognition any system problems. Furthermore, management failed to identify the timeliness and resources needed in the implementation process.Recommendations consort to the case of FoxMeyer, the case is very similar with Craven Books case espec ially in the reasons that both company cant identify suitable software for company and insufficient of preparations or pre-activities before the implementation new system. In order to eliminate and cope the issues, Craven Books should follow these recommendations before the implementation of new system.1. Software selection A project guide committee should be created and should involve high level of expertise, both technical and operational in the software selection process. They should do some question in different software, compare and assess their pros and cons to identify the suitable software which best fit the business needs.2. Contingency plan A fortuity plan should be develop to handle the situation when the system failure. narrow clearly the roll back procedures or develop new contingency plans to prepare for the breakdown of any system modules and for the total new system.3. Stakeholders involvement Any new project implementation should get the involvement of all s takeholders which also include end users and customers of the company. All related parties should understand the purpose of the project and congressman out their opinion especially in the anterior stage when any critical issues are reasonable evolving.4. Thorough testing An organized comprehensive testing plan should be develop, encourage user participation in the testing process and make sure proper testing situations are presumee to the new system.5. Realistic project scope Project scope should not be over-ambitious, it should be clearly place with realistic targets.6. End user support All employees and end users should be well trained to handle the new system. Response and address to the end users concern to reduce any negative feelings to the new systems. Identify the need of any changes on agents and create a high and positive esprit de corps to meet the new challenges.7. Post implementation review Quality impudence and control programs should be develop to ensure the system checks are through. nonplus business inflection to measure and compare the projects estimated results with projects actual result that redeem been achieved. Prepare an evaluation report and pass to stakeholders to review the results.Issue 2 The second issues are that the company relied too much on their consultants and suppliers who provide the system. This could be issues for Craven because they did not review the system, all the procedure on the nose follows the consultants suggestion, they did not test the efficiency and the effectiveness of the system before it implemented.The consultants suggested Craven to go for an existing system, the suggestion for Cravens purpose was a bad choice, and its like putting a third wing on a jumbo jet. The things were going fast but at the end it does not work. Craven is too much reliance to the distant consultant. Craven did not do any reference check to the consultant they just hired the consultant and just rely on the consultant to do the implementation of the new system for the company. adviser is playing an important mathematical function when a company wants to implement a new system. The consultant responsible for the whole systems, to provide the software solutions and other recommendations based on the assessment. Consultant do give advice, but they frequently also perform tasks thatresult from that advice. Those tasks can range from running a public relations campaign to building a customized order fulfillment system. The consultant may integrate customized software into a business or organizations processes in order to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the systems and to minimize manpower or the costs.For example, a physical fitness centre could benefit from the integration of proprietary software that tracks the progress of the gyms members, in the form of measurements and other personalised data. A consultant, might specialize in the creation of such software for the fitness centre, a nd pitch the software to various business and organizations indoors the fitness industry. As software can perform a wide diverseness of functions, a software consultant might deliver software solutions to a wide variety of industries. Businesses and organizations will often hire one or a firm on a contract basis, if such expertise is not al create is available in-house. For example, a real estate company that al mark employs a computer programmer, webmaster, or other information technology professionals might also hire a consultant who can create a database of properties customized to suit the companys information management needs.If the consultant fail to perform their tasks, there is many accomplishable failure for the project and will impact the whole company as well. The company will face cost overruns, over budget and project delay due to the poor project management by the consultant. The consultant is not focus on the organizations change systems and lack of attention to th e business process reengineering. nigh consultants have never done the things they consult on. In innovation circles this path they have never been managed a team of people, never prototyped an idea, never filed a patent, never taken creative risks, so instead of banking on their experience, or even their knowledge of the experience of others, they make stuff up, there is an issues emanate from that.Recommendation There is no one to blame with this implementation, the company should cancel the whole project and kick out the consultant. For the implementation of the new system, Craven should explore a qualified and experienced consultant butnot just book knowledge. A good consultant has valuable experience in one or more areas of specialty, and they can use this experience for the company advantages. Craven at start should select the right consultant firm, following(a) is to get the consultant involved early and set up a clear and formal communication system allowing the company to excrete with the consultant what they needs to be clearly understood and turn into designing the software that suitable for the company.Craven should having an interview session to choose the consultant from the hundreds out there, have a reference check on the consultant to check their mise en scene to ensure they have a good background and dont have any bad reputation out there, also have to review what they have done before, for example if they have any success implementation job before and when choosing a suitable consultant dont forget the fact that the company will need to work closely with this person for months and sometimes years, so have to choose conservatively to ensure the consultant can work with the employees, the consultant should has the world power to communicate effectively and gather accurate details regarding to the business process.Craven buy the system from the supplier and trying to get more advice from consultant is not wrong. However, the mistake of Craven is they relied too much with the supplier and consultant that they did not cautiously review the advice and do a reveal decision before implemented the system. Craven can collect all the opinion and suggestion from the consultant but have to review and have a meeting with top management to subscribe the possible consequences that may affect the company as a whole. The top management have to consider cautiously and have to discuss the feasibility to implement the new system, coming out with a better outcome for the better future for the company.Planning is very important before the consultancy process so that the business is able to set out the objectives that they want to achieve after implemented the new system in the company. In addition, Craven has to ensure that they are hiring a consultant that has adequate knowledge about the system implementation. A consultant with adequate experience has the ability to identify the peculiar(prenominal) needs of the business based on the knowledge thatthey have acquired over the years.Craven should not rely on the suppliers. Suppliers can supply with the templates and best practices that can take the company a good part of the way but Craven still need to find what is constitutes success and failure, progress and set-backs, also set a deadlines. Top management of Craven should have the responsibility to the company, they must have to know that suppliers are just selling the software and the implementation, the decision of the management made will instanter affect the future for the whole company. Craven have to know what their business processes up front is, and dont let the suppliers software define for the company.Issue 3 The third reason that causes the new system implementation failed is null is responsible on the system. Based on the case study, the intension of etched Book decided to implement new system for enhancing their company competitive and more effectiveness for company system, but there wer e not one to follow up and back up the systems after implementationThis failure happened to be nobody to handle or managed the systems or the lack of system team members and leader who have experience in this information system depicted object followed all the requirements needed to make the project successful. Hence, sliced management lack of experiences and it is a first time of system implementation to the company. Before these, all the companys transactions, orderings, delivering was under manual systems. Due to company willing see improvement of the information system, they started their first try to implement the computer system.Besides that, Cravens argued the responsible of information back up should be provided and back- up by the supplier of the software, on the other hand, supplier re-blamed back they do not have any responsibility on this issue since they just developed the ready software and sell to their customer needs. Both parties involved blamed to each other for the consequent that it is the sole mistake of the management of the company because they did not again, strategically planned the project.Due to the issue arose, below are the recommendations parts can be givenEmploying IT technical support background people as company employee As result of new system transformation of company, Carven may consider to employ new staff from the specific IT business line as company sources for supporting and back- up Company new system implementation as a team with the former management. Forming a subdivision or a group member into system development & supporting group with collaboration with the company system user for supporting company system.Hence, Carven may appoint management private instructor as the plane section head whose job scope is leading the whole team of members to wreak the problems what the system user met during implementing period. At the beginning stage, department manager has to conduct the new system education to company system user through system formulations & lessons for the veritable staffs.Normal situation can be seen in the beginning of new system implementation, the most of the users were lacking of experiences in applying the new system in their workplace, especially for Carven employee who is the first time who use the new system in 1990s. After few months of training and lesson, company system users will be more familiar and effective to systems.It can be seen that they have more capability and acceptable for using the new software in this period. In this system implementation stage, department manager may regard the system support in more upper and deeper level on the system error or system problems which maybe faced by the company users. System users must voice up the issue and the problems which they faced and handled to the IT group. Through this issue arose, IT supporting group must size up the situation and problems at the first and try to re cultivate it for the current compa ny demand.Some of the time, company may change their company strategy or follow the customers need changes, it will affect directly into company information system procedure and in the end system user will also be affected through the transformation. That situation may generate some dispute and problems between the system and the users. IT development group have to follow up itand back up anytime with those issues arise.Their job scope not only on the back up the system, however they also involved in protecting and upgrade the software system if there have any disputes between the system and user or customers. The reason that some of outdated or old system code or services transaction, it was not be used by the company, thus IT group should upgrade into new transformation.Do not rely too much on the Suppliers and ready software It is important that always pick a reliable suppliers and ready software company for future better support. Some of the ready software company and supplie rs who are not too much experience and have depth software knowledge will drag the effectiveness when any problems arise. IT support Group or specific manager must always take noted the software version depend company need to the suppliers in anytime for the better system using. Besides that, IT group members may pint out the problems which is software shortcoming or deficiency to the supplier then has a period meeting with ready software suppliers in a quarter year once for system information updating.Another important factor should be taken note by company user are not rely too much with the suppliers. If they faced any issues from the former system, it will drag down company performance once supplier cannot give the system support on time. Company implement information systems may hire and develop their own IT support group in company for nearest support and backup.Benchmarking with other company One of the business strategies can be applied in Carven book is benchmarking. Benchm arking is the process of comparing ones business processes and performance metrics to industry bests or best practices from other industries. Dimensions typically measured are quality, time and cost. In the process of best practice benchmarking, management identifies the best firms in their industry, or in another industry where similar processes exist, and compares the results and processes of those study or the targets to ones own results and processes. In this way, they learn how well the targets perform and, more importantly, the business processes that explain why these firms are successful.The objective of benchmarking is to understand and survey the current position of a business or organization in relation to best practice and to identify areas and means of performance improvement. This process is used in management and particularly strategic management, in which organizations pronounce various aspects of their processes in relation to best practice companies processes, u sually within a peer group defined for the purposes of comparison.This then allows organizations to develop plans on how to make improvements or adapt specific best practices, usually with the aim of increasing some aspect of performance. Benchmarking may be a one-off event, but is often treated as a continuous process in which organizations continually seek to improve their practices.Company can choose benchmarking with other not the same field company which is best practice in information system owning to understand other company system. Through the benchmarking, company vent out some IT supporting group member out to benchmarking company learn their best system culture and how they implement the system in their company. Thus, the benchmarking project may exchange the views and experience between the benchmarking company and current company each other together during their visit.Once the benchmarking project finished, IT supporting group member may discuss with current company sy stem user concerning the good practice and services from benchmarking company respectively as well as learn from it and improving the deficiency of current systems. Also, it is vital that any new system developing or changing must check or depending to present companys need and requirement.Recommendations from the video In the end of the video, there were some recommendations were given the computer journalist-Lynn Clarke. She suggested that the company should consider the business priority than the technology and simplify or rationalized the business as possible. Moreover, she also gave comment that the company should utilize the time to in prepare and design strategic plan before making any decisions in choosing the suitable system that fit thecompany. So, in order for Craven Books to solve its problem and continually to have a competitive position in the market place, a strategic planning must be done before the information technology system was created to prevent any more probl ems and major downturn.Conclusion As for conclusion, nowadays all the industries need information technology in order to become the strongest in the grocery. It shows that to be competitive in this modern world, information system should follow up too. This is to ensure that the company is achieving to the needs of its stakeholders and to meet the requirement that the customers wants.However, in order for Craven Books to solve the problem and continually have competitive position in the marketplace they must bear in mind that creating new systems for the company, they need to do strategic planning, having a meeting among all top management in the company to discuss about the possible for the implementation, and to have enough preparation to implement the new systems in order to prevent all the possible problems happened during the implementation stages.

Monday, January 28, 2019

Cogent Argument

Name Professors Name Course Date Determination of a Cogent rail line Cogency is a term that is used to show coherency of the variant premise that contri thates to a proof that is derived from the individual statements (Audi 235). Cogency thus depends on the exposit, if all the premise be true, then the last will be probably construed to be true, the use of the word probably makes it open for both inclination to be considered. Cogency is used in inducive argument where observations be used as an inference for proposing a general restrain regarding a statement (Audi 237).Acceptability is the concurrence verdict that is reached after a c atomic number 18ful evaluation of all the outstanding grammatical constituents establish on the expound of a statement (Audi 245). In the first premise, it is acceptable to say that the grades the scholars scores has no relation with their own(prenominal) values but depicts their ability to grasp the contents of the syllabus. This is becau se in grading it is the exact tintinnabulation between what the student writes and what was taught, there is no any other factor outside this range that is integrated in classification.For instance, a drug habituate student can score As while a Christian one scores Ds, these grades do non absolutely reflect the students personal values at all. The secondment premise is non acceptable is every bit acceptable, whatever is taught in class is not constitutionally obliged to anyone in a legal perspective such that they have to believe the classroom opinions and facts. Whereas they have the capacity to retain the knowledge and use it to get reform grades, there is no legal requirement that they have to believe in what they are taught.Understanding and believing are two different spoken language that confer different meanings altogether, premise three is acceptable and is relevant to the last premise. All the three set forth are true and augur easy with the conclusion statement. Since all the premises are construed to be true, it becomes impossible not to believe the last premise. The fact that all the three premises are taken to be true, substantial grounds is established to believe the conclusion. relevancy is the relation of the motley premises to the conclusion premise, it all the premises are true then it is said to be relevant to the conclusion (Audi 251).The conclusion in this case is dependent upon the individual premises, any opinion regarding the premises directly influences the outcome of the conclusion. With reference to the four premises given in this case there is relevancy in the premises, the three preceding premises are all true allowing them to be relevant to the conclusion. Grades do not reflects on the personal values of the students is the fact in the first premise, the second one asserts that there is no legal obligation to believe what is taught in class and the third one informs that the students who are familiar with the evolution fib do not believe in it.Form the three premises a conclusion is the made regarding them that for those who understands the evolution story and do not believe in it should not be given lower grades. The relevancy in the premises can then be vividly observed. An fair to middling ground is the consistency of the individual premises in assertion of an boilers suit judgment (Audi 265). Considering all the premises in the case, it is impossible to refute the conclusion based on the three premises to a higher place. All the premises are true and combine to give the conclusion that is given in the above case.In conclusion, the ARG conditions are used to critically evaluate premises and conclusions based on their coherency and consistency in determination of a conclusion. These commence about the term cogency which implies the resonance given by the various statements. The use of the ARG is useful in making deductive or inductive reasoning that is essential in the critical and creative thinking (Audi 285). name cited Audi, Robert. Epistemology A Contemporary Introduction to the Theory of Knowledge. New York NY Taylor &038 Francis, 2010.

The Supreme Court Essay

The Supreme Court made a ruling in Free Enterprise Fund vs. PCAOB saying that Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) go forth remain fully operative as law with the exception that The Securities and permute Commission forget be equal to remove at will members of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board. Previously they were not able to and was said to violate the referment clause of the constitution. This changed job security for its quint board members ending a three-year battle between a Nevada satisfying Beckstead and Watts who sued PCAOB in 2006. The accounting firm declared that it was unconstitutional for SEC to appoint its board members rather than the prexy giving it to much authority unchecks by executives. However, a decision been made by the courts to meet the plaintiffs at the halfway, pointed step forward that if was against constitutional policy to remove board members completely it would violate withdrawal of situations principle. The courts rest the power with the presi dent to have complete authority to direct and fire PCAOB members.According to Susan Hackett general counsel, this was an important move because it invalidated the PCAOB conflict process and upheld the SOX Legislation. A power move to allow congress and the president to have ultimate ability to control institutions that possess significant cleverness of companies. This decision in my opinion opens up a fair commercialize and does not allow larger company to push and over power smaller firms. Board members must go through a cover charge process so not to have bias authorizes in control. credit ratingJaeger, J. (June 28, 2010). High Court Ruling only Tweaks Sarbanes Oxley Act. Enforcement and Litigation, 13. Retrieved from http//

Saturday, January 26, 2019

Community Insight Essay

Last December 20-21, 2013 we conducted a community immersion in Barangay 8a Upper Madapo pitchers mounds Davao City. At first, I was very iffy about att revoke immersion. I didnt see the entire point of attending something that didnt seem to mean much to me, But as the days wore on during my immersion, I came to realize how b littleed I was in living, how blessed I was to beat waxn up in such a synthetic rubber and warm environment. With a loving family, and enough cash to support my mundane needs and education. During my immersion, I got to meet children who were only a few old age younger than me, precisely who progress to endured much more in life than I ever have. They didnt have the same resources that I have had to live a good lifestyle.The kids were very nice and friendly and cooperated with us when it came to the activities that we had prepared. We laid out activities for us and the children that were meant to be fun and social-oriented. At the end of those 2 days, I got to learn a push-down list about those children and the environment that they had been thrust into.At the end of it all, I am glad that I chose to attend the immersion. Though different from the other immersion sessions of other students I got to learn a lot about the community I was voluminous in. I can say that All our hard work and dig out during the immersion had produced wonderful fruits and were on the nose so happy that we made lot of children smile. Our experienced is Tiring yet FUN This really was a worthy learning experience.A community, by definition, cannot be exclusive. In a community, everyone is simplytoned by common bonds and chooses to look out for each other, not because it is convenient, plainly because it is right. A community is made of individuals, who are all equal in their humanity. Service has replaced me by bringing me into contact with people who I would have not met otherwise and by amplifying my capacity to run across and empathize with ot hers.I realized that familiarity Service is important for many a(prenominal) reasons.I realized that It is A unique opportunity to use what was taught in class in a real- man setting, to Experience an increased cultural awareness and an appreciation for diversity. It is A big(p) chance for us to network and build relationships. And it provides us with opportunities to use new acquired skills and acquaintance in real-life situations in the communities.My experience during the community immersion teaches a lot on me. I learned to become independent and formulation the responsibility being task on me. I learned to socialise with different people whatever there status in the society. And nigh important I learned how to respect life and thankful for what I have right now. The community immersion open my eyes to many things and reality and I will cherich this experience for it teaches me to become a separate person.The community immersion that we conducted has taught me the value of learning not only from professors, but in addition from fellow classmates, partners in the community, and individuals, regardless of their age or educational background. It has also taught me to be an active member of our society.I realized that in doing community immersion, a person will find themselves and be undetermined to the lifestyles of other people, which also tends to make them more aware of the needs of the less fortunate.the Moment when I joined the advanced immersion and went to Upper Madapo hill I consider it an integral aspect of my life. Taking part in community immersion on the community fosters a unique moxie of charity and goodness. A feeling that not only benefits those in need, but also advances the self-worth and morality of an individual.My love for the environment also motivated when I joined the immersion. The rivers, fields, trees, animals they cant speak up when they need help. In our world, they often become damaged until someone notices. Communit y service to me, also means giving the earth a voice.Community service is not about logging hours proving that you are active or have give your debt to society. It is about forming connections, lending yourself to something that is bigger than you, stepping outside of your comfort zone to understand the connection between self interest and common interest.In just a short clipping in our community immersion leaves us both feeling blessed. Doing Community service leaves me with a happiness that I havent been able to find anywhere else in my life. The knowledge that I have helped others brings me peace and satisfaction. It supplies me with a different perspective on life, one that I constantly need to be reminded of. It has opened my frank up to the fact that life is delicate and precious.There are so many aspects and complications to the world that my so-called problems are a tiny disfigurement compared to the issues that community service has allowed me to understand. Community s ervice is a way for me to grow and learn. My experiences have changed my life, and knowing that I have helped others is a wonderful gift. Community service shows us that the world is not the cold and inhumane displace that many people consider it to be.Still community service goes beyond dedicating your time to help someone else, its dedicating your mind to others. It is seeing or hearing something that is upsetting and actually wanting to make a change. numerous people see what is wrong in the world and try to change it with more money, or new programs, however that is not what the world needs. The world needs human compassion it is the engine that keeps us going. More than money we need kindness, and nothing shows the true concern for those around more than dedicating your time to help them.I believe that the beauty of community service lies in its ability to connect us all closer together. My most memorable community service experience has been in Upper Madapo Hills. It is a us eful, enjoyable, and compelling learning experience.

Friday, January 25, 2019

Cicero’s Oratory and Rhetoric Influence on Roman Politics Essay

The establishment of Rome as a nation in 509 BC was initiated by the overthrow of the Tarquin monarchy by Junius Brutus. From the dust of the fallen monarchy, the Senate assumed full pisss in governing Rome with the Senate as its highest governing body. There were no written constitutions entirely legalitys and traditions guided the res publica . From that point for state of ward, the Senate had the power to wage war, impose taxes and run the bureaucracy of the expanding Republic with officials delegated to every post under the supreme authority of the Senate.The Republic and then evolved from a simplistic method of governance inherited from the previous institutions. juvenile offices were invented in order to respond to the needs of the conviction. Hence, from consuls rose the ranks of the proconsul then the qauestors, praetors, censors and so on. These offices had specific tasks and delegations with powers that varied in length of effect and severity. However, all these po wers were heavy in the hands of the patricians which the plebeian section resented until political currents curtly sweep and shook the foundations of the republican institutions controlled by the aristocracy .In 1st degree centigrade BC these events culminated into a dictatorship by a origin proconsul, Julius Caesar and soon the Roman Republic was on the verge of dissolution. A conflict amid two social classes ensued and finally the Roman Republic that was ruled by the Senate was no more than a puppet of a tyrant. During the final days of the Roman Republic, a brilliant speechifier emerged from the ranks of the aristocracy, Marcus Tullius Cicero, whose life was intertwined with the republics collapse.Though originally, Cicero was not born from a wealthy family such that he would be, by lawfulness of birth, destined to be a part of the view aristocracy in the Senate. His was a political ambition which he gained by means of a career in law. He eyed for a underside in the S enate and with that he studied philosophy, jurisprudence and rhetoric. With the gift of words he made it into the Roman bureaucracy by being elected into the deliver the goods offices of the qauestor, aedile, praetor and finally consul in 63 BC . Ciceros rising to the highest office was attributed to Lucius Sergius Catalina who was vying for the post.To prevent Catalina (Catiline) from being elected, Ciceros party nominated him. His livery during the election was preferably essential in the exceptional rise to power by a non-patrician. In his First Oration once morest Catiline, DOoge translates Ciceros speech before the Roman Senate Before what youth, whom you had ensnared by the charm of your enticements, acquire you not carried a sword to encourage for his audacity or a torch to fire for his lust this, Cicero s sanction in the presence of Catalina who tried to defend himself but the senators hauled at him a barrage of questions and interruptions that made Catalina hightail it from the assemblage.Further engaging hatred against Catalina among the upper class senators, Cicero even invented that Catalina remove his wife . He likewise included in his speech the senators were individually fearful of nothing or fearful of everything that they declined at first to answer against Catalina . Such was Ciceros powerful speech that the tables were turned against Catalina. In Catalinas desperate attempt to attain the consulship, he hatched conspiracies which were passed to Cicero who immediately report back to the Senate.With such virtuosity, Cicero acquired emergency powers from the Senate. He later obtained messages Catalina sent to the Allobroges in lieu of his plans to raid the city. All these events were articulated by Cicero in a series of speeches in the Senate asserting that a threat had been extinguished. Following his initiation of evidence to the Senate, arrests were immediately carried out and the conspirators were punish without trial . Ciceros revelations sure frenzied applauses from the Senate as the rebellion was quelled before it touched the streets of Rome.Hence, the Cataline camarilla gave way for Cicero and his oratory the popularity among the citizens and earned his consulship all at the same time . It was not the first time that Cicero made use of his oratorical skills but it was the very last of his outstanding accomplishments as a senator for the winds of the civil war upon Rome, and it was just a little time that Julius Caesar had tolerated the whimpering of the unsatisfying Senate . It was inevitable that Cicero lastly fell for the complexities of the military mind of Julius Caesar.He was eventually exiled for rallying bum the losers side. His exile was based on the allegations that he executed the Catilinarian conspirators without trial made by his archenemy Publius Claudius, but in reality, it was caused by his plea of Romes republican structure and the maintenance of the Senate which Caesar held powe rless through with(predicate) the Triumvirate, with Crassus and Pompey . His exile gave him time to reflect his republican principles. His three major whole kit and caboodle worth to be discussed here in length was On the orator, On the Republic and On the Laws. These documents in the form of dialogue were his manifesto of the republican principle he adhered to and believed to be the best for Rome. These treatises were interconnected with each other as each one was a prerequisite to the next. On the Orator discussed the characteristics of an elevated orator. Here he ascribed that a good orator must likewise be well acquainted with philosophy and law as a rhetorician should always have the solid foundations of actual basis for his arguments.Seemingly possible that the rhetorical abilities were reciprocally beneficial so that philosophical and political ideas could be well articulated hence smash understood and later agreed upon by a target audience. An ideal orator, he said, ha d to be at the fore of political decisions, create the needed laws and be in himself an example of the correct way of living. These necessary traits of the orator were essential for the formation of an ideal commonwealth which he detailed in the treatise On the Republic. It was deliberated there that the Roman institutions were undermined at the onset of the Triumvirate.He just evaluated that the Roman Republic was a concoction of the components of a monarchy, aristocracy and democracy. In this paper his despise for the aristocracy which had marginalized him in the beginning of his career became evident. The example decay of the aristocracy had been pointed out to be a possible cause of the governments destruction. In order to avert such destruction, virtue must be actively exercised and the essence of the foundations of community had to be considered at all times. Therefore, the statesman who ran the affairs of the republic had to be accustomed to the invention of natural law. These laws he insist on the last treatise, On the Laws, were to be based on the natural order of things such that man should perform his duties as what was determined of him to do even before his birth. He asserted that only through reason justice could be discovered that would subsequently provide the commonwealth with the laws that would govern its affairs . These discourses on the republican principles however, were deemed useless since Julius Caesar was just waiting for the right moment to strike. When Cicero was finally permitted to return to Rome, he was accepted by the citizens with somewhat unchanged enthusiasm.Feeling indebted to Pompey, he again took the center stage of the Forum to persuade the Senate to give Pompey commanding powers which Pompey took advantage while Caesar was on a military campaign in Gaul . While having these especial dictatorial powers, Pompey moved against Caesars advantage. The strokes of biography went against Cicero as Julius Caesar ultimately defeated Pompey and became the sole dictator of the Roman Empire. hence along with Pompeys vanquish from the city, senators who also went to Pompeys side fled in hope that they would be able to remove Caesar from his tyranny through Pompeys legions in Africa and Spain.When Cicero was granted clemency by Julius Caesar in 47 B. C. , a condition was set that he would not be engaged in politics but when Caesar was assassinated in March 44 B. C. , Cicero again meddled with the affairs of the struggling factions who were eyeing Caesars former position. He was after all, aspirant that Octavian, the heir apparent to Caesars throne, would be influenced and manipulated to bring the Senate back to its former glory. In order to ensure Octavians victory over check out Anthony, he engaged into the battle of persuading the senators, though they only held ceremonial powers, to aid Octavian.This series of speeches were called the Philippics. The Philippics had shown the greatest orator and rheto ric in Cicero and come scholars read that it was the finest moment in his political career but those speeches only spelled his death. Clearly, the Philippics were aimed to mess Mark Anthony. Unfortunately, Octavian had already come up with agreements with other contending parties. Cicero met his death quite sardonically too deviated from the eloquence of his oratory and the refinement of rhetoric. It was a ferocious end for a man who lived by the word.His head was displayed at the Forum to convey a clear message to the Romans that the Roman Republic was out(p) and that the new age had commenced .ReferencesBoatwright, M. T. , Gargola, D. J. , & Talbert, R. J. A. (2006). A Brief History of the Romans. newfangled York Oxford University Press, Inc. Clayton, E. (Ed. ) (2006) The Internet Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. Michigan. DOoge, B. L. (1915). Cicero Select Orations. New York Benj. H. Sanborn & Co. Holland, T. (2003). point of no return The Triumph and Tragedy of the Roman R epublic. capital of the United Kingdom Little Brown. Suetonius. (2003). The Twelve Caesars (R. Graves, Trans. ). London Penguin Group.

Wednesday, January 23, 2019

Perfect Blue Essay

Introduction I will be investigating Marcus Hamilton, an associate of my uncle, who is in the career of web design. As a web designer, Marcus creates and arranges the pages that make up a website. He of ten-spot has to poise how a page looks versus how a web page functions, which send word involve some compromises. One of his recent acknowledgements is website accessibility this refers to creating web pages that are ready to hand(predicate) to bothone, no matter what device they are using. weavesite accessibility also stresses the immensity of making a website accessible to those with any kind of disability. Marcus plant life for a website design company called Perfect Blue, he usually ranges from home and so his work kitty sometimes invade his individual(prenominal) life as his employer expects lots more work to be do than in the time span of a normal 9am-5pm job. Internet rendering of engineering The Internet is the worldwide, freely accessible network of interconnected calculating machine networks that transmit data by packet switching using the cadence Internet Protocol.It is a network of networks that consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and g everywherenment networks, which together break away various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the macrocosm Wide Web. The World Wide Web is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents that runs all over the Internet. With a web browser, a ingestionr bear view Web pages that may contain text, images, and other multimedia and navigates between them using hyperlinks. e-mail allows the user to send and receive messages which may include images, documents or mental picture via a telephone signal.Additionally, web base messengers such as windows live(a) messenger allow the user to slide by with contacts through the internet. Advantages He washbowl publish anything which he creates online. It is easy to use.  Search engine s that are fast and tidy for finding resources. Ability to link to him and contacts most immediately.  He can convey/download the latest software for web design.  He can use email to transfer files without the need to leave his home. Disadvantages  Search engines that show results based on who pays them the most.Speed takes precedence over quality.  Personal information organism accessed by others.  Malware such as adware or spyware become a abhorrence and can be very harmful.  Spam receiving many un incumbent and abortive emails. Professional require and effect on working style Marcus unavoidably to be fitting to transfer his completed work back and away from home to work when his employer demands them and when he does not want to go to work. He can attach the files, which his employer needs, to an email and send them without having to go to work.He can also use Windows Live messenger to send the files to his employer without going to work. Marcu s needs to be able to view his work when it is in progress as his customers would, he needs to do this to make improvements or fix bugs. To do this he uses a web browser and navigates to the website, he then tests the website by navigating around it, searching for errors or where improvements need to be made. Since the internet is what his work depends upon, it is very good at meeting Marcus professional needs.Marcus can favor his working hours and so can wrap his work around his favorable life, to a certain extent. Additionally, the same aspect of the internet can be interpreted as an obligation of if working at home that he is forced to complete his work at home, this is highly conflicting with his personalized life. Personal needs Marcus needs to be able to be able to update his music collection with the new songs without having to buy a CD album with unwanted tracks on it. Marcus uses iTunes to buy and download songs from the iTunes Music andt in and can easily update his c ollection.Marcus needs to be able to invite out and deposit from his bank account when it is difficult to get to the bank or when it is closed. He uses online banking to suffice transactions, payments etc. over the Internet through a bank, credit union or building societys ready website. This allows him to do his banking outside of bank hours and from anywhere where Internet access is available. And he does not need any special software or hardware to do this. The technology has drastically improved the personal fulfilment of Marcus needs.He can easily update his music collection and can perform banking wherever there is internet. Marcus needs are easily met with the internet but sometimes his professional life can reduce the time which he has to indulge in his personal amusements. As he may direct to complete some work and so would not have necessary time to satisfy his personal needs. Also hackers may easily obtain his banking details and so could perform identity theft which is a coarse risk. Social Marcus needs to communicate with his friends when they are otherwise unavailable or if it is expensive to use the telephone.Marcus can use Windows Live Messenger or email to freely communicate with his friends when the need arises. In Windows Live Messenger he can chat to friends in real-time and he can even have a painting call with the aid of a webcam and a microphone. He can/may have to also communicate with his colleagues or his employer and provide progress information. The internet has improved the way in which Marcus communicates with his friends and family and his general social needs very well. The recent development of video calls has proven to have become superior to voice only calls as it is almost as if the communicators were in the same room.However, the fact that Marcus employer uses the same technology renders it quite irritating as his employer can contact him when he is not working and can make further demands when he is chatting with fr iends. To avoid conversing with his employer he can block him from Windows Live Messenger but this is not attainable in email and his employer can almost contact him at any time. digital Camera Description of Technology A digital television camera is an electronic device used to capture and store photographs electronically preferably of using photographic film like courtly cameras.Modern crusade digital cameras are usually multifunctional, with some devices capable of bear witnessing undecomposed and/or video as well as photographs. Advantages  The digital camera allows flexibility, instant images and picture possibilities that did not exist earlier.  Since there is essentially no film cost, the digital camera allows you to scatter fancifully over and over until you get it right. The cost never enters into your thinking.  The real-time visual image which shows you almost exactly what you are getting is a photographers dream.You distinguish the picture in color on an LCD screen beforehand you take it and also immediately after you take it. You can shoot for ten minutes, review what you just shot, then shoot for another ten minutes.  Also you can turn the lens around 180 degrees so that you can take self-portraits and see accurately what you will get at the same time, this was impossible before.  If you want to exhibit your work you can solely put your pictures directly on the internet which is the greatest gallery conceivable for a photographer.The gallery is accessible to anyone in the world who has an Internet connection, 24 hours a day at very little cost.  The digital camera is much less expensive to maintain, more spontaneous, easier to work with and easier to exhibit than conventional cameras. Disadvantages  Even the best digital camera cant record images with the detail you get from a film camera. Digital recording devices cant match the resolution, sharpness, tonal range and colour reproduction capabilities of fil m. Digital cameras take anywhere from two to 30 seconds to store each image.

Tuesday, January 22, 2019

Objective of Education Is Learning

The mark of Education Is Learning *The Objective of Education Is Learning, Not Teaching* *In their book,** *Turning Learning Right situation Up Putting Education Back on Track*, authors Russell L. Ackoff and Daniel Greenberg stop consonant out that todays education system is seriously flawed &8212 it focuses on article of faith rather than contracting. wherefore should children &8212 or adults &8212 be asked to do something computers and related equipment lav do untold wagerer than they clear? the authors ask in the future(a) excerpt from the book. Why doesnt education focus on what humans tramp do better than the machines and instruments they realize? * Education is an admirable thing, and it is wholesome to conceive from time to time that nothing that is worth unwraping can be taught. &8212 Oscar Wilde Traditional education focuses on teach, not acquirement. It incorrectly assumes that for wholly(prenominal) ounce of article of belief thither is an ounce of scholarship by those who atomic number 18 taught. However, some of what we swallow heed onward, during, and after attending schools is studyed without its manhood taught to us. A child learns such fundamental things as how to walk, talk, eat, dress, and so on without human beingsness taught these things. But are there intrinsic barriers to acquire?Adults learn close of what they use at work or at lei authoritative magic spell at work or leisure. Most of what is taught in classroom settings is forgotten, and much or what is remembered is irrelevant. In most schools, memorization is mistaken for learning. Most of what is remembered is remembered yet for a short time, but then is quickly forgotten. (How many remember how to take a square root or ever contribute a need to? ) Further more(prenominal), even young children are aware of the point that most of what is expected of them in school can better be d unrivalled by computers, recording machines, cameras, and so on .They are treated as poor surrogates for such machines and instruments. Why should children &8212 or adults, for that matter &8212 be asked to do something computers and related equipment can do much better than they can? Why doesnt education focus on what humans can do better than the machines and instruments they create? When those who conduct taught others are asked who in the classes learned most, virtually all of them tell apart, The teacher. It is apparent to those who have taught that teaching is a better way to learn than being taught. Teaching modifys the teacher to discover what one thinks about the outlet being taught.Schools are upside down Students should be teaching and mental faculty learning. After lecturing to undergraduates at a major university, I was accosted by a student who had attended the lecture. After some complimentary remarks, he asked, How long ago did you teach your first class? I responded, In September of 1941. screech The student said. You mean to say you have been teaching for more than 60 years? Yes. When did you last teach a crease in a subject that existed when you were a student? This difficult inquiry required some thought. After a pause, I said, September of 1951. Wow You mean to say that everything you have taught in more than 50 years was not taught *to* you you had to learn on your own? Right. You must be a pretty good learner. I modestly agreed. The student then said, What a shame youre not that good a teacher. The student had it right what most faculty members are good at, if anything, is learning rather than teaching. Recall that in the one-room > school base, students taught students. The teacher served as a guide and a resource but not as one who force-fed content into students souls. *Ways of Learning* in that location are many different ways of learning teaching is barely one of them. We learn a spacious accord on our own, in independent study or play. We learn a great deal interactin g with others informally &8212 sharing what we are learning with others and vice versa. We learn a great deal by doing, through trial and error. Long before there were schools as we know them, there was apprenticeship &8212 learning how to do something by trying it under the guidance of one who knows how. For subject, one can learn more architecture by having to design and build ones own house than by victorious any number of courses on the subject.When physicians are asked whether they leaned more in classes or during their internship, without exception they answer, Internship. In the educational process, students should be offered a wide variety of ways to learn, among which they could choose or with which they could experiment. They do not have to learn different things the same way. They should learn at a very early stage of schooling that learning how to learn is by and large their responsibility &8212 with the help they settlek but that is not imposed on them. The objectiv e of education is learning, not teaching.There are two ways that teaching is a powerful tool of learning. Lets abandon for the moment the loaded record teaching, which is unfortunately all too closely tieed to the notion of talk of the town at or lecturing, and use instead the rather awkward style explaining something to someone else who wants to find out about it. One panorama of explaining something is getting yourself up to snuff on whatever it is that you are trying to explain. I cant very well explain to you how Newton accounted for planetary motion if I havent boned up on my Newtonian mechanics first.This is a caper we all face all the time, when we are expected to explain something. (Wife asks, How do we get to Valley Forge from home? And husband, who does not want to fill he has no idea at all, excuses himself to go to the bathroom he quickly Googles Mapquest to find out. ) This is one sense in which the one who explains learns the most, because the someone to wh om the accounting is made can afford to forget the explanation like a shot in most cases but the explainers will find it sticking in their dispositions a lot longer, because they fightd to gain an sympathy in the first bulge out in a form clear enough to explain.The second aspect of explaining something that leaves the explainer more enriched, and with a much deeper understanding of the subject, is this To satisfy the person being addressed, to the point where that person can nod his head and say, Ah, yes, now I understand explainers must not only get the matter to commensurate comfortably into their own worldview, into their own personal frame of reference for understanding the world around them, they also have to figure out how to link their frame of reference to the > world view of the person receiving the explanation, so that the explanation can make sense to that person, too.This involves an intense effort on the fall apart of the explainer to get into the other perso ns mind, so to speak, and that exercise is at the heart of learning in general. For, by practicing repeatedly how to create links between my mind and anothers, I am reaching the very core of the art of learning from the ambient refining. Without that skill, I can only learn from direct amaze with that skill, I can learn > from the experience of the whole world. Thus, whenever I struggle to explain something to someone else, and succeed in doing so, I am locomote my ability to learn from others, too. Learning through Explanation* This aspect of learning through explanation has been overlooked by most commentators. And that is a shame, because twain aspects of learning are what makes the age mixing that takes place in the world at large such a valuable educational tool. junior kids are always seeking answers from older kids sometimes just somewhat older kids (the seven-year old tapping the presumed life wisdom of the so-much-more-experienced nine year old), much much older ki ds.The older kids love it, and their abilities are exercised mightily in these interactions. They have to figure out what it is that they understand > about the question being raised, and they have to figure out how to make their understanding comprehensible to the junior kids. The same process occurs over and over again in the world at large this is wherefore it is so important to keep communities multi-aged, and why it is so destructive to learning, and to the development of culture in general, to segregate original ages (children, old race) from others.What went on in the one-room schoolhouse is much like what I have been talking about. In fact, I am not sure that the adult teacher in the one-room schoolhouse was always viewed as the beat out authority on any given subject Long ago, I had an experience that illustrates that point perfectly. When our oldest son was eight years old, he hung around (and virtually worshiped) a very brilliant 13-year-old named Ernie, who loved science. Our son was unmatched about everything in the world.One day he asked me to explain some material phenomenon that lay within the realm of what we have come to call natural philosophy being a former professor of physics, I was considered a > conjectural person to ask. So, I gave him an answer &8212 the right answer, the one he would have entrap in books. He was greatly annoyed. Thats not right he shouted, and when I expressed surprise at his response, and asked him why he would say so, his answer was immediate Ernie said so and so, which is totally different, and Ernie knows. It was an enlightening and fair experience for me. It was clear that his faith in Ernie had been developed over a long time, from long experience with Ernies unfailing ability to build a bridge between their minds &8212 perhaps more successfully, > at least in certain areas, than I had been. One might wonder how on ground learning came to be seen primarily a result of teaching. Until quite rec ently, the worlds great teachers were understood to be battalion who had something fresh to say about something to state who were interested in hearing their message.Moses, Socrates, Aristotle, Jesus &8212 these were people who had original insights, and people came from far and wide to find out what those insights were. One can see most clearly in Platos dialogues that people did not come to Socrates to learn philosophy, but rather to hear Socrates version of philosophy (and his wicked and witty attacks on other peoples versions), just as they went to other philosophers to hear (and learn) their versions. In other words, teaching was understood as public exposure of an individuals perspective, which anyone could take or leave, depending on whether they cared about it.No one in his right mind thought that the only way you could become a philosopher was by taking a course from one of those guys. On the contrary, you were expected to come up with your own original worldview if you a spired to the title of philosopher. This was square(a) of any and every aspect of association you figured out how to learn it, and you exposed yourself to people who were unforced to make their understanding public if you thought it could be a worthwhile part of your endeavor.That is the basis for the formation of universities in the Middle Ages &8212 places where thinkers were willing to make pass their time making their thoughts public. The only ones who got to stay were the ones whom other people (students) found relevant enough to their own personal quests to make listening to them worthwhile. By the way, this attitude toward teaching has not disappeared. When quantum theory was being developed in the second quarter of the twentieth century, aspiring atomic physicists traveled to the unhomogeneous places where different theorists were developing their thoughts, often in radically different directions.Students traveled to Bohrs institute to find out how he viewed quantum th eory, then to Heisenberg, to Einstein, to Schrodinger, to Dirac, and so on. What was straightforward of physics was equally true of art, architecture you name it. It is still true today. One does not go to Pei to learn architecture one goes to learn how he does it &8212 that is, to see him teach by telling and showing you his approach. Schools should enable people to go where they want to go, not where others want them to. *Malaise of muddle Education* The trouble began when mass education was introduced. It was necessary To decide what skills and knowledge everyone has to have to be a reapingive citizen of a developed expanse in the industrial age To make sure the way this data is defined and standardized, to fit into the standardization required by the industrial culture To develop the means of describing and communicating the standardized information (textbooks, curricula) To train people to comprehend the standardized material and master the means of transmitting it (tea cher training, pedagogy) To create places where the trainees (children) and the trainers (unfortunately called teachers, which gives them a status they do not deserve) can meet &8212 so-called schools (again a term stolen from a much different milieu, endowing these new institutions with a dignity they also do not deserve) And, to provide the coercive climb necessary to carry out this major cultural and social tempestuousness In keeping with all historic attempts to revolutionize the social order, The elect(ip) leaders who formulated the strategy, and those who implemented it, perverted the language, using terms that had attracted a great deal of respect in new ways that dark their meanings upside down, but helped make the new order palatable to a public that didnt quite catch on. Every word &8212 *teacher, student, school, discipline,* and so on &8212 took on meanings diametrically opposed to what they had originally meant. Consider this one example from my recent experience . I attended a conference of school counselors, where the modish ideas in the realm of student counseling were being presented.I went to a posing on the development of self-renunciation and responsibility, wondering what these concepts mean to people infix in traditional schooling. To me, self-discipline means the ability to pursue ones goals without out-of-door coercion responsibility means taking appropriate action on ones own initiative, without being goaded by others. To the people presenting the session, both concepts had to do solely with the childs ability to do his or her assigned class work. They explained that a guidance counselors proper function was to get students to understand that responsible air meant doing their homework in a timely and effective manner, as prescribed, and self-discipline meant the determination to get that homework done. George Orwell was winking in the back of the room.Today, there are two worlds that use the word *education* with opposite m eanings one world consists of the schools and colleges (and even graduate schools) of our education complex, in which standardization prevails. In that world, an industrial training mega-structure strives to turn out identical replicas of a product called people educated for the twenty-first century the second is the world of information, knowledge, and wisdom, in which the real population of the world resides when not incarcerated in schools. In that world, learning takes place like it always did, and teaching consists of imparting ones wisdom, among other things, to instinctive listeners.

The Book: Boofheads

Essay on Boofheads by Mo Johnson. The criminal record Boofheads is a story based on blemish. Prejudice is here in either day society. This intensity was written by Mo Johnson for teen jump onrs that have the said(prenominal) problem. The problem is sexism. The prejudice in the book is sexism and how it discharge affect stack in such ways that they have to give up virtuoso of the most important things in life. With the tierce seventeen year hoary boys Ed, Steve and Tom sexism is a big problem.In the book Boofheads by Mo Johnson sexism is a problem between young boys and lady friends. The girl saying rough girls being smart and boys being dumb. This was a clear demonstration of prejudice in Boofheads. In chapter three the three best-friends Ed, Steve and Tom were all in side class. Their teacher had asked Tom a question about the book Pride and Prejudice which the class had been given to read for homework. One of the girls in the class named Amy Jones had spoke up before Tom could start to purpose his question.Amy then answered the question correctly and turned to Tom and Steven to comwork forcet on how dumb they were. Her arguments aim was to prove that girls were clearly smarter than boys and that they were not able to formulate a single word of half decent English, Amy had commented. This example explains wherefore this passage from the book has the prejudice of sexism. Boofheads by Mo Johnson has a primary(prenominal) story line on three teenage boys pretending to be a 36 year aged(prenominal) lady in gear up to have a column in a teenage girls powder store.The three boys Ed, Steve and Tom have had the opportunity to prove themselves undecomposed to all the sexist girls in their school. They are going to become a fake lady so that they can answer teenage girls problems in Toms begins magazine. Each month they feel an email from Toms mum with problems from girls around the state. They come up with solutions to the problem and file an email back to Toms mum with the answers. They only do this to prove that boys can produce a single word of half decent English.The girls in the boys school are adamant that the boys are dumb and these three boys want to prove that they are not. In Boofheads the seventeen year old boy named Tom has a mother that is a fussy magazine editor. One of the best in the country. She has a messy office and neer relies on Toms advice. Tom is always giving his mother advice on the look of the magazine, contrasting colours and some fashion ideas. He is usually right as his mother gets the same criticism from her boss. She neer even realises that Tom gave the same advice to her rior to her changes. She does not believe that a priapic has any brain for a magazine and they need to stick to the things that men are supposed to do. Tom could be right on the recite of a word and she would still not believe him. This shows that women of an older age are still sexist to males when it comes to how smart th ey really are. In stopping point the book Boofheads by Mo Johnson was a book about sexism. It was chiefly based on sexism on males by females. This is why Boofheads is a book about prejudice.

Monday, January 21, 2019

Preamble: United States Constitution Essay

The Preamble was placed in the system more or less as an afterthought. It was not proposed or discussed on the floor of the Constitutional Convention. Rather, Gouverneur Morris, a delegate from Pennsylvania who as a member of the Committee of Style truly drafted the near-final text of the Constitution, self-possessed it at the last moment. It was Morris who gave the considered purposes of the Constitution coherent shape, and the Preamble was the capstone of his informative gift. The Preamble did not, in itself, have any substantive legal meaning. The understand at the time was that preambles are merely declaratory and are not to be read as granting or limiting powera view sustained by the Supreme Court in Jacobson v. mama (1905).Nevertheless, the Preamble has considerable potency by virtue of its specification of the purposes for which the Constitution exists. It distills the underlying values that moved the Framers during their long debates in Philadelphia. As rightness Josep h Story put it in his celebrated Commentaries on the Constitution of the linked States, its true office is to expound the nature and extent and application of the powers actually conferred by the Constitution. Alexander Hamilton, in The Federalist No. 84, went so far as to assert that the formulates secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity were a part recognition of popular rights, than volumes of those aphorisms, which make the principal figure in several(prenominal) of our state bills of rights.An appreciation of the Preamble begins with a comparison of it to its counterpart in the compact the Constitution replaced, the Articles of Confederation. There, the states joined in a firm fusion of friendship, for their common defence, the security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare and bound themselves to uphold one another against all force offered to, or attacks made upon them, or any of them, on account of religion, sovereignty, trade, or any other computer simulation whatever. The agreement was among states, not mass, and the military protection and the liberties to be secured were of the states as such.The very opening words of the Constitution mark a radical conflict We the People of the United States. That language was at striking variance with the norm, for in earlier documents, including the 1778 treaty of alliance with France, the Articles of Confederation, and the 1783 Treaty of Paris recognizing American independence, the word People was not used, and the phrase the United States was followed immediately by a listing of the states (viz., New Hampshire, Massachu locatets Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, and so on pop to Georgia).The new phraseology was necessary, given the circumstances. The Constitutional Convention had provided that whenever the popularly choose ratifying regulations of nine states approved the Constitution, it would go into effect for those nine, irrespective of whet her any of the stay states ratified. In as much as no one could realize which states would and which would not ratify, the Convention could not list all thirteen. Moreover, names could just be added to the Preamble retroactively as they were admitted. Even so, the phrase set off howls of protest from a number of opponents of ratification, notably Patrick Henry.Henry aerated that the failure to follow the usual form indicated an intention to create a consolidated national government instead of the system that James capital of Wisconsin described in The Federalist No. 39 as being neither a national nor a federal constitution but a composition of both. Henrys assertion was made in the Virginia ratifying convention and was promptly and devastatingly rebutted by Governor Edmund Randolph The government is for the people and the misfortune was, that the people had no agency in the government before.If the government is to be binding on the people, are not the people the proper persons to picture its merits or defects?

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

Global Thematic: Technology Essay

History has seen its fair share of technical innovations that were significant and impactful to the pack and society of that time occlusion. These emanations in technology brought some monumental changes, for good and for worse. An example of a noteworthy innovation was Johann Gutenbergs imprint charge up. During the rebirth, the printing process press played a key government agency in the sprinkleing of new ideas. The use of roads was a scientific innovation as well.During the reign of the popish pudding stone, roads force earth in multiple aspects of life, such as trade and transportation. After the need of the printing press during the Renaissance, and roads of the Roman Empire, one could make an design that each was a significant technological innovation and had effects on their respective time periods.The printing press, invented by Johannes Guttenberg, was a technological advancement that had effects on humankind throughout history. Specifically, during the Ren aissance, the printing press was impactful on society through the spreading of ideas. The Renaissance, literally rebirth, was a time period in which Europe flourished culturally and economically. In this golden age, philosophers, writers, and other thinkers evince ideas that were revolutionary to society. Humanism and individualism were big parts of Renaissance thinking.A positive effect of the printing press, these ideas were spread to the public. Martin Luther expressed revolutionary ideas in his 95 Theses, thanks to the printing press. Furthermore, books became plentiful. The printing press catalyzed literacy, since works of belles-lettres were no longer a scarcity. Knowledge exploded as every(prenominal) corner of realms of thinking were explored and documented. The printing press, without a doubt, was an innovation of technology that impacted humankind during the Renaissance.An additional advancement in technology was the use of roads. The Roman Empire, a vast kingdom of lan ds including Europe, north-central Africa, and Asia Minor, all located rough the Mediterranean, was connected through a network of roads. Covering thousands of miles, dirt trails wouldnt work. The Romans engineered road by laying down large sheets of rock or bricks, fitting them together like puzzle pieces to form a vapid surface for trade and transportation.Wheel ruts wouldnt be present, so propel was possible all year round no matter the weather. During a time period under Augustus Caesar known as Pax Romana, the Romans experienced 200 years of peace, in which trade flourished, cultural aspects of Rome thrived. The built-in Mediterranean region was united and stable, thanks to an unwavering road system. A strong central government was able to protect its people and spread its ways to lands far from the center.The Twelve Tables were able to influence people from Europe, North Africa, and Southwest Asia, all because of perfectly engineered roads. A prosperous Roman Empire was able to provide a high standard of living to its people through booming trade, security provided by Roman legions, and a supply law code. Roads in the Roman Empire were most for certain a crucial technological advancement to its time period.Technological innovations substantiate marked their spots in history, two being the printing press and roads. Humankind and society alike have been impacted by these advancements. The printing press was a driving force in the Renaissance, spreading ideas. Renaissance thinking such as humanism and individualism were spread, and literacy boomed.Roads were in addition a huge technological innovation. In the Roman Empire, roads were the network connecting the empire, making Pax Romana possible. Roman culture spread, and economies boomed. Following the study of the printing press and roads, and their effects on their respective time periods, one could say the fact that technological advancements have had effects on humankind and society.